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Evanescent architecture: the disappearance of buildings and the historiography of preservation in Brazil


The research entitled "Evanescent Architecture: the disappearance of buildings and the Historiography of Preservation in Brazil" seeks to understand how two buildings considered as primodrial to the understanding not only of the urban, political and social life, but also for architecture, in the first half of Brazil's twentieth century have disappeared, but became important in the historiography of the area in recent years. In particular, we study the Monroe Palace, designed by Marcelino de Souza Aguiar (1855-1935) and erected by the Republican government to serve as the Brazilian Pavilion at the Centennial Exposition of the Louisiana Purchase in 1904, in the United States, and reassembled in Brazil in 1906 as headquarters for major national political institutions, such as the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Until 1976, when it was demolished, the building was used as a referential space for the city of Rio de Janeiro. Its disappearance due to its negative tipping the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage - IPHAN - put it on a level of questioning about the criteria used by the agency in Brazilian preservationist activities. The sum of this work is the study of the Solar Monjope, erected between 1927 and 1928, to serve as residence to the doctor and art critic José Carneiro da Cunha Marianno Filho (1881-1946), patron of the neocolonial movement on architecture, in Rio de Janeiro. This house, built with the goal of being a "manifesto" to the José Marianno s ideas, was the scene of important political meetings for the architectural class and other Brazilian artists depicted and disseminated throughout the Americas until the death of its founder, in 1946. From 1946 until 1972, the house was preserved by the heirs and references to it in the scenario of arts and architecture grew to the point of being nominated to preservation by IPHAN, something not approved, and that led to its demolition, after also obtained the negative INEPAC, the preservationist institution of the state of Rio de Janeiro. With the demolition, the area was used by real estate speculation in the 1970s. The study of these two buildings can therefore understand how organ preservation deal with Brazilian buildings, many of them with pro-preservation demands of non-specialists. To further the research seeks to understand what is conventionally called "social circuit of the work", ie, understand how the idealization, production, construction, circulation and reception of these mechanisms triggered memory architectures, reverberating in the middle social. The research attempts in this way does not make a biography of the buildings, but building a story that has as its backdrop the preservationists Brazilian institutions, especially IPHAN and INEPAC, understanding their deviations, goals, objectives, and how they see the society , using to this end, the three buildings on the screen. In general, the proposed research focuses on the representations and protests made in articles, books and textbooks for teaching the history of architecture, urban planning and preservation, preservationist about the activity in the country and the disappearance of the works cited. (AU)

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