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Nutrition effect on the development of hypopharyngeal glands on Apis mellifera L. bees and and metallomic study of royal jelly

Abstract

Larval feeding plays an essential role in caste differentiation in the Apis mellifera honey bee, as it promotes the hormonal profile changes and maintenance of integrity of the future queen's ovary. This difference in development is given to their exclusive royal jelly diet, produced by nursing worker bees from the secretions of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands. For these bees, the quantity and quality of pollen consumed are essential to the development of their glands, being directly related to the protein content consumed. Proteomics involves the study of the proteins properties and metallomic is related to genomics and proteomics because the synthesis and metabolic functions of genes and proteins does not occur without the presence of metal ions. The metalloproteins can be defined as those proteins that contain a metal cofactor incorporated by specific binding, characterized by high affinity. In this context, minerals such as zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are important for normal cellular functioning. Consequently, studying the variables that can affect the proper development of hypopharyngeal glands of workers is very important for the formation and maintenance of the colony, being the nutritional quality of pollen potential modulator of such development. In this project we are proposing the following actions, namely: to assess the proteic natural food (pollen) effect on developing of hypopharyngeal glands of bees throughout the year; evaluate the quality of bee pollen available nearby apiary throughout the year; evaluate the protein metallomic profile of royal jelly, throughout the year; evaluate the effect of supplementation of iron (Fe) in winter feeding for bees, and their reflections on hypopharyngeal gland and protein metallomic profile of royal jelly; and evaluate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) in winter feeding for bees, and their reflections on hypopharyngeal gland and protein metallomic profile of royal jelly. It is expected that this project to get important information about the bees' nutrition, once this is an area with little scientific knowledge, which certainly can contribute to the advancement of the field and swarms better nutrition. (AU)

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