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Soft power: a glimpse at FIFA's World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016 in Brazil

Abstract

Over the past few years, academic interest in the sport has expanded into all areas of scientific research. Since the mid-1990s, several Brazilian publications have as subject and object the football universe and the sports theme. Books, theses, dissertations and articles on the subject have been gaining ground within the academic and editorial production. In International Review for the Sociology of Sport at its 50th anniversary, Marchi Jr. points out the evolution of the sociology of sport in the Latin American context and the need to deepen in empirical analysis to present the Brazilian context abroad. The product of this project is to maintain dialogue in national and international publications. As empirical analysis will seek to analyze the two main mega events in the recent history of Brazil. By the time Brazil hosted the World Cup and is preparing to host the Olympic Games next year, we propose an analysis of the two mega-events, using the soft power as an analytical category. Joseph S. Nye, Jr., in 1990 in his book "Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power", and then in a series of articles and other publications, reinterpret the notion of power in international politics, dividing it into two broad categories , Hard and Soft. These terms, before long, would be established, both in academy and in politics, including being the subject of speeches of various international leaders. The notion of Hard Power can be defined, in a straightforward manner, as coercive capacity of one nation over another. Soft Power is defined as the way a country get results in international politics because other countries admire its values and aspire their level of prosperity. For the author, the power in international relations is the ability of a country to achieve the results in international politics and it can be done through coercion (Hard Power) or cooptation (Soft Power). Nye will split the sources of Soft Power in three main elements: (1) culture; (2) political values and (3) international politics. Culture encompasses aspects of society and its values, to the extent that they are attractive to others, as countries that seek to replicate the way of life and traditions of the best views nations. Political values can be set in the way the institutions and values of a country are understood abroad. Foreign policy is the set of conditions that results in a country having greater legitimacy than others, in time of international debate and may, with your opinion on a particular subject, be a reference for others. The Soft Power consists of all those elements that are not related to the economic and military power. It is a difficulty in measuring their influence objectively and create categories that can isolate its entirety, since it is constituted by factors largely immaterial which can not be measured and weighed the same as the size of a host or bomb-making capacity. This project will analyze the influence of Sporting Mega-events as a way to develop the Soft Power of the host country. We will use as a case study the Brazil Football World Cup 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
GRAEFF, BILLY; GUTIERREZ, DIEGO MONTEIRO; SARDA, THAIS; BRETHERTON, PAUL; BETTINE, MARCO. Capable, splendorous and unequal: international media portrayals of Brazil during the 2014 World Cup. THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY, v. 40, n. 4, p. 796-814, APR 3 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.

Please report errors in scientific publications list by writing to: cdi@fapesp.br.