Inflammation is an immune complex-related tissue damage and / or cell caused by chemical, physical, immunological or microbial. The inflammatory process involves a complex cascade of biochemical and cellular events, including awareness and receptor activation, lysis and tissue repair. In general, tissue damage trigger a local inflammatory response by recruiting leukocytes, which release inflammatory mediators. These substances are able to sensitize nociceptors. After synaptic transmission and signal modulation by nociceptive sensory neurons, these signals are perceived as "pain." Pain is an experience that involves multiple factors. The route of the supraspinal pain control originates in many brain regions, such as substance periarquedutal gray (PAG), median raphe nucleus and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and have a critical role in determining the chronic and acute pain. Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to control inflammation, which inhibit the inflammatory mediators, but can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers and cardiovascular damage. An alternative for the treatment of pain and inflammation is the use of plant species. The genus Eugenia belongs to the family Myrtaceae, one of the largest botanical families of expression in the Brazilian ecosystems. From the pharmacological point of view, studies of similar species crude extracts showed the presence of antiinflammatory, analgesic, antifungal, hypotensive, antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of some species. As a class of importance in therapeutic phytochemical, the flavonoids has represented an important group with significant antiinflammatory and gastroprotective, and are present in a significant way in the chemical composition of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia punicifolia. Previous studies in vivo performed in our laboratory demonstrated that oral administration of the extract in mice at a dose of 250 mg / kg showed antinociceptive action in the inflammatory phase of formalin model, promoting a 50% reduction in pain response in compared with the control group treated with vehicle (p> 0.05). In order to investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, it was found through the formalin model of the opioid system has no involvement in the antinociceptive. This project proposes to evaluate the effect antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Eugenia punicifolia in experimental models in vivo.
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