The p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, or parabens, are used in low levels to prevent the development of microbial and fungal. These compounds are extensively used as preservatives in cosmetic products. Researches carried out in vitro and in vivo have indicated that parabens can mimic the action of estrogen and induce the growth of MCF7 cells, which are related to the development of breast cancer. In recent studies, not hydrolyzed parabens have been identified and quantified in tissue samples of tumors from breast cancer and the human placenta.In lactating women, breast milk may be the major route for the excretion of persistent lipophilic substances, which are stored in the human body, mainly in the adipose tissue. As for babies during the lactation period, breast milk becomes the main source of exposure to harmful chemicals that can endanger the health of these infants, since their immune system is not fully developed. In recent years, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, tandem system (LC-MS/MS) has become the mainly analytical technique in bioanalysis. Modern analytical chemistry has seeked simplification by hyphenation of the techniques, automation (high-throughput performance), miniaturization of the analytical systems, minimization of the consumption of organic solvent and sample volume, and use of environmentally sound technologies. In this context, we highlight the technique of capillary solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography (in-tube SPME/LC), which allows for continuous extraction, concentration, desorption, and injection of the solutes using the LC auto sampler.The development of extracting phases for in-tube SPME, such as the restricted access materials (RAM) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has enabled the direct introduction of biological fluids in chromatographic systems and the selective pre-concentration (specific) of the analytes, respectively.In this work, a new molecularly imprinted phase with hydrophilic coating (MIP-RAM) has been developed for in-tube SPME analysis coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens in human milk samples.
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