The family Loricariidae, one of the largest fish families of the word with 832 species, has been subject of several taxonomic and systematic studies which has improving our comprehension about the diversity and general relationship patterns among its genera and species. However, considering the wide diversity of this group, many of the family problems still have to be solved. Recent studies recognized Ancistrinae as a tribe included in the subfamily Hypostominae, that was divided in five tribes: Ancistrini, Corymbophanini, Hypostomini, Pterygoplichthini and Rhinelepini. Among them, Ancistrini is the most speciose, with more than 240 valid species distributed from Panama to Argentina. Studies using morphological data showed that some genera as Peckoltia and Hemiancistrus are polyphyletics, and the genus Ancistrus is apparently monophyletic but just a few species of this genus were studied. The present project has as the main objective to test the hypotheses according to Ancistrini is monophyletic and study the relationships among the members of this tribe.
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