Gluten is a type of protein found in wheat; it is responsible for the structure, appearance and quality of breads. However, despite this technological importance, a portion of the population, people suffering from celiac disease, is intolerance to gluten consumption, which requires the development of gluten-free baked goods, which is a major technological challenge. The gluten-free breads (GFB) have a short shelf life due to rapid hardening and drying of the crumb, limiting their commercialization and consumption. Research results have shown that addition of emulsifiers can improve expansion and shelf life of GFB. However, the results are variable depending on the chemical characteristics of emulsifiers and their interactions with other components of the formulation. This project aims to extend the shelf life of GFB by adding emulsifiers in the formulations. The effects of adding diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides (DATEM), and distilled monoglycerides (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0 and 2.4% flour basis) in dough and bread properties will be accessed, as well as the shelf life of the products. A GFB formulation consisting of a mixture of rice flour and potato starch and other prepared with whole buckwheat flour will be used. The formulations with different levels of emulsifiers will be compared to each other and to a control product. The effects of emulsifiers addition on the physical properties of the dough (resistance to penetration and consistency) and breads (specific volume of breads, porosity, firmness and crumb moisture) will be accessed after the production. Then, the loaves will be packed in polypropylene bags and stored at room temperature (20-25 ° C). After 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of production the crumb moisture content and crumb firmness will be accessed. The formulations that achieve the most promising results, as well as the standard formulation, will be subjected to sensory evaluation enabling to determine the shelf life of GFB. It is expected that the emulsifiers form complexes with starch and proteins, resulting in increased expansion, softness, acceptability and shelf life of GFB.
News published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the scholarship: