|Support type:||Scholarships in Brazil - Master|
|Effective date (Start):||February 01, 2016|
|Effective date (End):||July 31, 2017|
|Field of knowledge:||Biological Sciences - Parasitology - Entomology and Malacology of Parasites and Vectors|
|Principal Investigator:||Mara Cristina Pinto|
|Grantee:||Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva|
|Home Institution:||Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas (FCFAR). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Araraquara. Araraquara , SP, Brazil|
Leishmaniasis are zoonoses caused by flagellate protozoa from the genus Leishmania transmitted by hematophagous insects called sandflies. Among the sandflies species, Nyssomyia neivai is considered as one of the main transmitters of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) on the state of São Paulo. This specie is found in the region of Araraquara besides have being found naturally infected by Leishmania (Viannia) spp and be incriminated as a vector of ACL on South and Central Americas. For host location and blood meal, kairomones act like signals for the vectors. Although there is evidence that Leishmania may manipulate the quantity of blood ingested and the frequency of sandflies blood feeding, increasing the transmission rate, it is not known how the parasite can affect the behavior of insects with infected hosts. This study intends to investigate if BALB/c mice infected or not infected with L. (V.) braziliensis are different on attractiveness for Ny. neivai, besides evaluate the blood volume ingested by the sandflies in both conditions. Moreover, we aim to identify the volatile present on both groups of animals. To evaluate the attractiveness of sandflies for infected and not infected hosts it will be used a methodology with Evans blue dye. Each of the tests will be repeated three times with different mice and will be used 30 different couples of insects of first generation. After each test, the sandflies will be individualized in microtubes, macerated and homogenized. The microtubes will be centrifuged and the supernatant transferred to a 96 wells plate for absorbance reading at 540 and 620 nm to evaluation of the number of females that fed in each mice. The values of absorbance also will be used to evaluate the blood volume ingested by the sandflies through a standard curve of absorbance versus blood volume that will be previously obtained through serial dilution of blood with PBS only and with the dye. The lesion material on the infection site will be removed for confirmation of infection by Leishmania, with incubation of the material in culture medium specific for the differentiation of amastigotes in viable promastigotas. The volatile released by the animals will be obtained through solid phase micro extration (SPME) and after obtaining the chromatograms by GC-MS will be identified through comparison with retention time of hydrocarbons and with a compounds library. The number of insects fed on the infected and not infected mice and the blood volume ingested by the insects will be statistically compared by T test.