The bacterial colonization of the implants and the biofilm formation on their surface can lead to the occurrence of peri-implantitis, which is one of the main factors of treatment failure. Citric acid has been considered the chemical agent with the greatest potential for biofilm removal from the surface of titanium (Ti). However, their use may lead to physico-chemical changes in the surface of the material, such as discoloration and increased roughness. In addition, citric acid tends to dissolve the oxide layer formed on the titanium surface, suggesting that this treatment may influence the corrosive behavior of the implant. The objective of this work is to test the dose-response of citric acid in the release of Ti surface ions, and its effect on the surface and electrochemical properties of the material from its chemical (immersion) and mechanical application. Four concentrations of citric acid (1%, 10%, 20% and 40%) will be prepared. Two means of application will be realized: immersion and friction with a swab of cotton soaked in citric acid. As a control group, the disks will be immersed and rubbed with 0.9% NaCl solution. For all groups the treatment will last 8 minutes. The release of Ti ions into the medium will be measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The surface characterization of the discs after the treatments will be performed by scanning electron microscopy, laser confocal microscopy, profilometry, X-ray diffraction and Vicker's hardness. Standard electrochemical tests will be performed in artificial saliva (pH 6.5) to evaluate the effect of the treatments on the corrosion kinetics of the material. The quantitative data will be submitted to the most appropriate statistical analysis with significance level of 5%. The number of specimens for each test will be determined after the pilot study and subjected to the power of the test.
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