The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a hydrophilic surface modified by sandblasting and acid etched and maintained in isotonic solution (ACQUA Surface) on the osseointegration of implants in diabetic and nicotine exposed conditions. One hundred twnty eight rats will be use in this study. The first study will asses the effect of the ACQUA surface in diabetic rats. Sixty-four rats will be randomly allocating in 4 groups with 16 animals each: ACQUA/Healthy; ACQUA/Diabetic; Group Machined/Healthy; Group Machined/Diabetic. The animals will be euthanizing at the periods of 15 and 45 days after the implants placement in the rats tibial methaphysis (8 animals group/period). In the second study, 64 rats will be allocated in 4 groups with 16 animals each according the type of implants surface installed in the rats tibias and the systemic condition of the animals: ACQUA/Healthy; ACQUA/Nicotine; Machined/Healthy; Machined/Nicotine. The animals will be euthanizing at the periods of 15 and 45 days after the implants placement (8 animals group/period). The following analysis will be perform: Biomechanical analyzes: It will be perform to analyze the removal torque of the implants; Histometric analyzes: It will be perform to assess the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and the bone area between the threads (BBT); Microtomograpgy analyzes: to evaluate the bone area around the implants; Bone formation analysis: Fluorocromes (Alizarin and Calcein); Proteomic analysis to evaluate protein expression of possible signaling pathways and Immunohistochemistry analysis: It will be perform to evaluate the expression of the proteins bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and osteocalcin (OCN).
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