In the past, the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region presented hyperendemic foci of vector transmission of Chagas disease. However, the epidemiological scenario has been changing throughout Brazil with the emergence of oral transmissions. A Chagas disease outbreak was officially reported earlier this year and cases were distributed across four municipalities in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil: Tenente Ananias, Marcelino Vieira, Alexandria and Pilões. There is suspicion of oral transmission, but to date the elements involved in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi are unclear. Among the risk factors for both vector and oral infection, we highlight the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors around the area and the proximity between these insects and humans. Identification of T. cruzi genotypes and vectors may be useful for outbreak tracking. Therefore, this project aims to prevent loosing important information about the event, in this case, on the tracking of vectors and parasitic genotypes harboured by insects. In this sense, triatomines will be captured in their different ecotopes (domiciliary, peridomiciliary and sylvatic) in the area of the chagasic outbreak. The vectors will be analyzed aiming the recognition of the prevalence of the natural infection by T. cruzi and the determination of the diversity of Discrete Typing Units (DTU) of the parasite. The diversity of vectors and parasite genotypes will be analized in geographic and ecotypic scales. The recognition of such genotypes is particularly important for association with those who may have infected humans. Thus, the results may provide relevant information for a better understanding of the eco-epidemiological panorama associated with the chagasic outbreak.
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