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Impact of the race factor on progression and biology of melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma

Grant number: 18/26006-9
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): May 01, 2019
Effective date (End): February 28, 2021
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Genetics - Human and Medical Genetics
Principal researcher:Israel Tojal da Silva
Grantee:Felipe de Azevedo Oliveira
Home Institution: A C Camargo Cancer Center. Fundação Antonio Prudente (FAP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Race refers to a population with common genetic and phenotypic features that separate them from other populations. Population studies suggest biological differences between races, in multiple aspects, such as: mutations, obesity, chronic inflammation and immune system, being, therefore, a relevant factor to be considered in the emergence and progression of diseases. Melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are highly aggressive; however, while the former has a significant incidence in Brazil, the latter is considered rarer. NSCLC has strong genetic and environmental components, and its main risk factor is smoking. According to data from 2012, lung cancer was the most common type of cancer in the world, and it was observed in the United States a higher incidence in Afro-descendants. On the other hand, melanoma's main risk factor is excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, in addiction to the family history. Among races, there is a difference in the mutational profile of some genes important in the development of melanoma. Due to the lack of clear conclusions about the observed differences in incidence and mortality among races in several neoplasias, this work seeks to clarify the racial impact on gene expression, inflammatory infiltrate and response to therapy in melanoma and NSCLC, and to confront the validity of racial self-classification. Genomic and clinical data will be obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and from local samples. We will use the software packages, Admixture, RFmix and PCadmix to identify chromosome, individual and population ancestry. Thus, we intend to contribute to the identification of possible race-specific markers, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the relationship between cancer, treatment and race. (AU)

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