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The challenge of biofilm control in patients using palatal breaker: effect of enzymes produced by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum

Grant number: 19/19162-7
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): November 01, 2019
Effective date (End): October 31, 2020
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Pharmacy
Principal Investigator:Carolina Patrícia Aires
Grantee:Nayanna Gomes Silva Lacerda
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (FCFRP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Ribeirão Preto , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Biofilm control in individuals with orthodontic needs is considered a real challenge in Dentistry and can have serious implications on the patient's oral health. Orthodontic device is indicated for cases of transverse maxillary disharmony, a condition commonly found in young patients. However, the use of this device is recommended for a prolonged period (6 months), which could cause difficulty in biofilm control, since the device cannot be removed for cleaning. In this context, enzymes as glucanases may be a viable strategy for biofilm control since these enzymes could interfere with the three-dimensional arrangement of the biofilm. Thus, considering the importance of biofilm control in patients with orthodontics, the aim of the project is to evaluate the effect of glucanases produced by the fungus, Trichoderma harzianum, on biofilms from patients with clinical indication for Haas palatal breaker use. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee, 6-month-old biofilms will be collected from 12 patients with indication for use of the Haas palatal breaker. After 48 hours in homeostasis conditions, biofilms will be exposed to one of the following treatments: a) 0.9% NaCl as a negative control; b) extract of T. harzianum enzymes. This extract will be produced by the induction of the fungus (T. harzianum) with mango polysaccharides from the Tommy Atkins mango variety. After 192 hours of incubation, the culture medium will be centrifuged and the supernatant containing the enzymes will be used to treat biofilms from the patients. At the end of the experimental period, bacterial viability will be evaluated and insoluble glucans will be extracted and quantified. For comparison between groups, initially the homogeneity and variability of the results will be analyzed. If the distribution of values is normal, ANOVA will be used followed by post-hoc test for comparison between groups. If the distribution is not normal, the comparison will be made using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The accepted significance level will be 5%.