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Grinding of superalloys with high performance grinding wheels: process performance evaluation

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Adriel Magalhães Souza
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Carlos.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (EESC/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Eraldo Jannone da Silva; Thiago Valle França; Amauri Hassui
Advisor: Eraldo Jannone da Silva

Superalloys are materials used in aeronautical, nuclear, metal-mechanical, petrochemical, automotive, and biomedical industries, and they are considered Difficult To Grind (DTG) due to their peculiar characteristics. For efficient grinding of these materials, superabrasive grinding wheels with cBN (cubic boron nitride) grains and vitrified bond are often used because of their superior performance when compared to conventional grinding wheels. However, it is necessary to use efficient peripheral and auxiliary systems, thus raising costs. Aiming to reduce costs, conventional wheels with ceramic grains and binders with high retention capacity appear as a promising alternative. In this tool comparison scenario, it is necessary to measure their performance, which includes technical requirements and process sustainability indicators. Thus, the objective is to evaluate a engineered conventional grinding wheel, comparing it with a vitrified cBN wheel, aiming to measure performance differences and sustainability criteria (economic, environmental, and social) of the process, when grinding superalloys with different degrees of grindability. The methodology of comparative analysis of the performance of the grinding wheels was based on the evaluation of the influence of input parameters (cutting speed, material, and specific removal rate) in the output variables to be monitored related to the process (power, specific energy, roughness - ratio G and tangential force per grain, Ft1g, grinding wheel surface, and chips), to the final quality of the piece (roughness, roundness, and surface analysis - topography, microstructure, and microhardness) and costs, in addition to the sustainability indicators. As results, in relation to the impact of the cutting speed, it was demonstrated that its increase is beneficial to the process, due to the reduction of the cutting thickness and lower Ft1g, causing less wheel wear and better surface quality of the ground piece. This result is inversely proportional to the removal rate. Regarding the materials, it was verified that the analyzed superalloys have different grinding capacities due to the different microstructures and chemical-mechanical properties that impact the performance of the abrasive tool. The material Inc.751 presented the worst grinding capacity among the analyzed materials, mainly due to its austenitic matrix and the presence of Aluminum-Titanium in its composition. By the analysis of the chips, it was verified that they have elongated formats, typical of ductile materials, and it was ratified the efficiency of the cooling system. With the wheel characteristic curves, it was verified that the tools have different behaviors, superior to the cBN wheel, due to the greater capacity of retention of the grains by the binder. Through the investigation of the grinding wheels, no evident wheel loading was observed, noting the efficiency of the high-pressure cleaning system. By the analysis of the pieces, it was verified that the grinding did not induce thermal damages to them. The evaluation of the sustainability indicators provided a better analysis of the efficiency of the process, making easier the decision-making on the performance of the grinding wheel and/or ideal condition. Concluding, the feasibility of the conventional wheel in substitution of the cBN wheel was confirmed for the grinding of the tested superalloys. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/12425-4 - Grinding of superalloys with high performance wheels: evaluation of process performance
Grantee:Adriel Magalhães Souza
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master