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InCor pediatric simulator: development of a pediatric mock circulation loop with an automated adjustment of pressures.

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Daniel Seidenberger Torres
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Politécnica (EP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Idágene Aparecida Cestari; Jose Roberto Cardoso; Eduardo Tavares Costa; Antonio Marcus Nogueira Lima; Henrique Takachi Moriya
Advisor: Idágene Aparecida Cestari

Ventricular assist devices (VADs) can be used for the hemodynamic stabilization of patients waiting for heart transplantation. Advances in the technologies and the use of biocompatible materials have contributed to the development of devices with reduced dimensions and blood trauma. Evaluation of the performance of these devices demands the use of hydraulic simulators of the circulatory system that reproduce pressures and flows existing in physiological conditions of interest. This work aims to develop a simulator of the pediatric circulation with automated adjustments of pressures. The simulator consists of a hydraulic circuit modeling the systemic and pulmonary branches and a microcontrolled system with a user interface for monitoring flows and ventricular pressures, and automating adjustments of aortic and pulmonary arterial pressures (AoP, PAP) and left and right atrial pressures (LAP, RAP). Two pulsatile pumps with 15 ml ejection volume are used to model the mechanical behavior of the left and right ventricles. Aortic and pulmonary arterial compliances and preloads of the ventricles are simulated by chambers with adjustable volumes of air and fluid (blood analog) using an air pump. Motorized clamps adjust the hydraulic resistances of the loops. Instantaneous signals of VAD input and output flows and of arterial, atrial and ventricular pressures are obtained by transducers and digitalized in a microcontroller that commands the clamps and the air pump. Algorithms were developed to adjust the resistances, compliances and preloads. A graphical user interface displays signals in real time (or recorded) and allows selection of simulation parameters. The performance of the automation system was tested setting pressures in two situations: 1) simulations of random conditions defined by the interface software and 2) simulations of physiological conditions (normal and low myocardial contractility). In the systemic model, the pressures were adjusted in both cases (maximum error of 0.5% for AoP and 5% for LAP) in approximately 80 seconds. In the complete model, the maximum error for simulations of physiological conditions was 4% for arterial pressures and 5% for atrial pressures. The results obtained demonstrate that the simulator developed allows mimicking the relevant features of the systemic and pulmonary branches of the circulation needed to assess the performance of mechanical circulatory assist devices. The simulator is portable, easy to operate and can be applied in teaching and training of health professionals working with mechanical circulatory support of patients. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/00695-1 - Development of a mock circulatory system for the evaluation of pediatric ventricular assist devices
Grantee:Daniel Seidenberger Torres
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)