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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Alternative Animal and Non-Animal Models for Drug Discovery and Development: Bonus or Burden?

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Freires, Irlan Almeida ; de Cassia Orlandi Sardi, Janaina ; de Castro, Ricardo Dias ; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz
Total Authors: 4
Document type: Journal article
Source: PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH; v. 34, n. 4, p. 681-686, APR 2017.
Web of Science Citations: 25

Mammalian models have served as a basis for R\&D over the past decades. Nevertheless, these models are expensive, laborious, may yield results that cannot always be translated into the human in vivo situation and, more recently, have reverberated great social and ethical dilemmas. Hence, the prospect of changes in the global scientific scenario and the Three Rs principle (Reduction, Replacement and Refinement) have encouraged the development of alternative methods to the use of mammals. Despite the efforts, suitable alternative tests are not available in all areas of biomedical research, as regulatory acceptance requires time, prior validation and robust financial and scientific investment. In this perspective, we aim to shed light on the concepts, challenges and perspectives for implementation of innovative alternative animal and non-animal methods in scientific research. The applicability and meaningfulness of invertebrate animal models, in silico analysis and reverse pharmacology are discussed, among other aspects of relevance in today's scenario. Overall, the use of alternative models, including Artemia salina (brine shrimp), Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm), Danio rerio (zebra fish), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Galleria mellonella (greater waxmoth) and in silico modelling, increased 909% from 1990 to 2015, as compared to 154% of conventional mammals in the same period. Thus, technological and scientific advancements in the fields of toxicology and drug development seem to have diminished the need for mammalian models. Today, however, mammals still remain critically indispensable to provide - in most cases -reliable data subsidizing and validating translation into the clinical setting. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/25080-7 - Prevalence of strains of Streptococcus mutans expressing Cnm in children and adults, and the role of this glycoprotein in the pathogen-host interactions
Grantee:Irlan de Almeida Freires
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 11/15984-0 - Anti-Candida, antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities evaluation of essential oil and fractions from Coriandrum sativum L.
Grantee:Irlan de Almeida Freires
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master