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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Controlling methylene blue aggregation: a more efficient alternative to treat Candida albicans infections using photodynamic therapy

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da Collina, Gabriela Alves [1] ; Freire, Fernanda [1] ; da Costa Santos, Thabata Paulino [1] ; Sobrinho, Natalia Gesse [1] ; Aquino, Simone [2] ; Prates, Renato Araujo [1] ; Teixeira da Silva, Daniela de Fatima [1] ; Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Anna Carolina [1] ; Pavani, Christiane [1]
Total Authors: 9
[1] Univ Nove Julho UNINOVE, Postgrad Program Biophoton Appl Hlth Sci, Sao Paulo - Brazil
[2] Univ Nove Julho UNINOVE, Profess Masters Program Adm Hlth Syst Management, Sao Paulo - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 2
Document type: Journal article
Source: PHOTOCHEMICAL & PHOTOBIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; v. 17, n. 10, p. 1355-1364, OCT 1 2018.
Web of Science Citations: 5

Methylene Blue (MB) has been widely used in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT), however, the mechanisms of action (Type I or Type II) are defined by its state of aggregation. In this sense, the identification of the relationships between aggregation, the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness against microorganisms, as well as the establishment of the means and the formulations that may favor the most effective mechanisms, are essential. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the in vitro aPDT efficacies against Candida albicans, by using MB in vehicles which may influence the aggregation and present an oral formulation (OF) containing MB, to be used in clinical aPDT procedures. The efficacy of MB at 20 mg L-1 was tested in a range of vehicles (water, physiological solution - NaCl 0.9%, phosphate saline buffer - PBS, sodium dodecyl sulfate 0.25% - SDS and urea 1 mol L-1) in a C. albicans planktonic culture, when using 4.68 J cm(-2) of 640 +/- 12 nm LED for the irradiations, as well as 5 minutes of pre-irradiation time, together with measuring the UFC mL(-1). Based upon these analyses, an OF containing MB in the most effective vehicle was tested in the biofilms, as a proposal for clinical applications. When comparing some of the vehicles, sodium dodecyl sulfate was the only one that enhanced an MB aPDT efficacy in a planktonic C. albicans culture. This OF was tested in the biofilms and 50 mg L-1 MB was necessary, in order to achieve some reduction in the cell viabilities after the various treatments. The light dosimetries still need further adaptations, in order for this formulation to be used in clinical applications. The present research has indicated that the development of this formulation for the control of MB aggregations may result in more effective clinical protocols. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/13488-0 - Medium influence at methylene blue photodynamic efficiency in Candida albicans inactivation
Grantee:Natalia Gesse Sobrinho
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
FAPESP's process: 16/03037-0 - Photosensitizers aggregation and its consequences in photochemical mechanisms and Photodynamic Therapy effectivity
Grantee:Christiane Pavani
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 12/50680-5 - Photosensitization in life sciences
Grantee:Mauricio da Silva Baptista
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants