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Effects of altitude training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters, muscle oxygenation and performance in elite athletes: an integrated analysis by complex network model

Abstract

High-performance athletes are well trained, carrying the adaptations of many years of sports practice. In this case, there is great difficulty in implementing the aerobic and anaerobic capacity and power of these individuals. On the other hand, minimal changes in these parameters can be the key to success, resulting in triumph in the final sporting events. Altitude training (TAlt), also called "live high and train high" (LH+TH) is one of these strategies, which promotes adaptations to hypoxia in the athlete's exposure for two to four weeks. Although these periods of physical training in conditions of the moderate or elevate altitude are used in the sports scenario, many gaps still persist in relation to the positive effects of TAlt on the adaptations of elite runners, as well as the best time to readjust to the places where they perform your competitions to improve performance. In fact, the adjustments and adaptations provided by TAlt must occur exactly in the relationship between the supply and uptake of oxygen by specific tissues (muscles used in the task), mediated by hemoglobin. However, investigations in this way with real and "in vivo" experimental designs are also restricted in the literature. This project aims to investigate the effects of altitude training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters, oxygenation in different muscles and the performance of elite endurance athletes. Additionally, to improve the more integrated understanding of the TAlt effects, the study will apply the computational model of complex networks involving centrality metrics in different scenarios (before, during and after TAlt). Elite runners from the Brazilian Paralympic Team will be submitted to aerobic and anaerobic protocols, and a 3,000m race simulation, before and after TAlt. These procedures will be performed at a high frequency of signal capture, using equipment capable of performing physiological and mechanical measurements, such as force, velocity and power in all-out 30 second test. The near-infrared spectroscopy - NIRS devices will identify variations in the oxygenation of more or less active muscles during running tests and simulations race. Hematological investigations will also be performed before, during and after the altitude exposure physical training program. In summary, with the objective of advancing scientific and practical knowledge, and working with innovation and technology at the frontier of knowledge, we intend to investigate the effects of TAlt in a differentiated way. For that, our proposal involves: i) a highly qualified sample, composed by elite athletes of the modality; ii) altitude training carried out by experienced sports professionals, with systematic monitoring of the observed altitude adaptations; iii) a multidisciplinary group of researchers, from different areas such as Sports Training, Exercise Physiology and Computer Science; iv) the use of innovative and wearable technologies, applicable to sport and capable of maintaining ecological validity throughout the evaluation process; and v) A more holistic data analysis, using a complex way of approaching a phenomenon that we consider so. (AU)

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