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Maximal tethered running applied to soccer players and active subjects in two scenarios: investigations about mechanical power and oxygenation in more and less active muscles by complex network model

Grant number: 19/20894-2
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)
Effective date (Start): February 01, 2020
Effective date (End): July 31, 2021
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Physical Education
Cooperation agreement: Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
Principal Investigator:Fúlvia de Barros Manchado Gobatto
Grantee:Anita Brum Marostegan
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas (FCA). Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Limeira , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:16/50250-1 - The secret of playing football: Brazil versus the Netherlands, AP.TEM

Abstract

High and short intensity efforts are characteristically required by soccer players. Among the possibilities pointed out as the "key to success" in soccer are the technical-tactical strategies adopted by winning teams, the athletes' technical in the development of specific tasks and the physiological aspects that support the high energy demand required in the matches. In this way, in addition to the responses classically investigated as intensity biomarkers, such as Heart Rate (HR) and blood lactate, recent investigations have suggested greater attention to peripheral muscle oxygenation during exercise and recovery, although still with proposals not directed to soccer players or comparative propositions between athletes and active subjects. By wearable technologies such as NIRS, it is now possible to improve understanding about the more or less active muscle group’s participation during high intensity effort, as well as to analyze the effectiveness of muscle activity after exercise. Taken together, these analyzes may point out ways to implements the physical training prescription in soccer or detect peripheral muscle adjustments only present in athletes but not in active subjects. In addition, means to further improve the performance of highly trained individuals are currently targeted at sports. Strategies such as tethered running in training and testing, as well as the Pre-Activation of Inspiratory Muscles (PA-IM) suggested as a form of dribbling the metaboreflex and delay fatigue, are currently on the frontier of knowledge. What are the physiological responses, including oxygenation in more or less active muscles, promoted by high intensity tethered running? Are there differences between these responses obtained by soccer players and active subjects? Is PA-IM capable of boosting the performance of soccer players and active subjects in the maximal tethered running? If so, by what mechanical and physiological adjustments? Can complex network models assist in interpreting these data in two different groups submitted to two scenarios (with or without PA-IM)? Using highly robust testing and wearable technologies, this project was structured to answer these questions. For this, soccer players and active individuals will be evaluated in laboratory conditions. Firstly, participants will be informed about the study design, answer the competitive sports history and level of physical activity questionnaires. In the second session, an anthropometric assessment/body composition will be conducted and the maximal inspiratory force (MIP) and Sindex will be individually measured. The participants also will be adapted to the ergometer (non-motorized treadmill). The next two sections will be randomized, and characterized by maximal running test (all out 30 seconds - AO30) in two different scenarios: with and without PA-IM at 40% of the MIP. Using this protocol, mechanical data like force, velocity and running power will be recorded, as well as oxy and deoxyhemoglobin and tissue saturation index in the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis during exercise and passive recovery. Physiological responses (HR, lactacidemia, pulse oximetry and perceived exertion) will also be monitored. All data obtained in different scenarios (with and without PA-IM) and for both groups (soccer players and active subjects) will be achieved with high frequency signal capture. Combining the knowledge of the exercise physiology, sports training and computer science, a complex network analysis will be applied to different scenarios, aiming to improve the data interpretation in a more global context and not just focused on analysis of equality and differences. (AU)