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Study of the cognitive characteristics of children: foundations the of constructivist-interactionism theory

Abstract

We know that learning produce structural and functional changes in neurons, as well as on the importancethat several brain structures are in the process of teaching and learning. From the biochemical point of view, it is known the role of neurotransmitters on the performance of higher cognitive functions such as learningand memory. Genetic factors also studied very, very well described the impacts of genetic diseases andsyndromes on cognitive abilities. Besides these factors, we also know today about the influence ofexogenous factors on development and the intersection of these two factors (endogenous and exogenous) topic of great interest to behavioral geneticists. Advances in neuroscience have provided a greaterunderstanding of cognitive processes, we know about the process of synaptogenesis (the formation ofsynaptic connections between neurons), it is known that a baby has many more neurons and neuralconnections that an adult, the neurons connect to each other and those connections that are not stimulatedeventually "disappear". This idea reinforces the argument about Vygotsky have a crucial role on the behaviorand development of psychological functions. According to him, the formation of higher functions is a processdue to an internalization process mediated by culture. So why not think in school, especially in the initialseries there is a clash of forms of thought arising from different social background of students. The aim ofthis study is to identify cognitive and psychomotor characteristics of children of different social classes, notas a way of judging the superiority or inferiority, but as a way to describe in greater detail the differences inskills resulting from experience of previous socio-cultural child. For this, we selected 120 children aged 6-7years freshmen in formal education, divided according to social class, classified based on ABIPEME. Will be used questionnaires, cognitive tests and psychomotor tests for the assessment of children. (AU)

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