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Essential oils in ruminants feeding

Abstract

Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic essential oil, eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise essential oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce methane production, and modify proteolysis or deamination in the rumen. The object of project will be evaluate effect of the addition of twelve types of essential oils where eight origin no Brazilian (Thyme, Ginger, Peppers, Rosemary, Clove bud, Tea Tree, Anise and Oregano) and four origin Brazilian (Sweet Orange, Lemon Sicilian, Tangerine and Mandarine) in ruminants diets across of the study in vitro and in vivo. (AU)