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Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of crude ginger and rosemary extracts obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction on macrophage and tumor cell line: the influence of vehicle type

Abstract

Background Numerous plants have been investigated due to their anti-inflammatory activity and, among then, extracts or components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sources of polyphenolic compounds. 6-gingerol from ginger rhizome and carnosic acid and carnosol from rosemary leaves present anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of these and other plant extracts is limited due to their high hydrophobicity. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a vehicle of liposoluble materials to mammalian cells in vitro, presenting enhanced cell penetration. Liposomes are also able to efficiently deliver agents to mammalian cells, being capable to incorporate in their structure not only hydrophobic molecules, but also hydrophilic and amphiphilic compounds. Another strategy is based on the use of Pluronic F-68, a biocompatible low-foaming, non-ionic surfactant, to disperse hydrophobic components. Here, these three delivery approaches were compared to analyze their influence on the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of ginger and rosemary extracts, at different concentrations, on primary mammalian cells and on a tumor cell line. Methods Ginger and rosemary extracts free of organic solvents were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and dispersed in DMSO, Pluronic F-68 or liposomes, in variable concentrations. Cell viability, production of inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide (NO) release were measured in vitro on J774 cell line and murine macrophages primary culture stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-³ after being exposed or not to these extracts. Results Ginger and rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of NO by peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells. The delivery vehicles influenced the anti-inflammatory effects. Comparatively, the ginger extract 3 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity on the tumor cell line. Controversially, rosemary extract dispersed on DMSO induced a more significant IL-1 and TNF-± reduction than ginger extract in primary macrophages. Conclusions Amongst the tested delivery vehicles, DMSO was the most suitable, presenting reduced cytotoxicity, followed by Pluronic F-68 and liposomes, provably due to differences in their form of absorption, distribution and cellular metabolism. Co-administration of liposomes and plant extracts may cause death of macrophages cells and induction of NO production. It can be concluded that some of the beneficial effects attributed to extracts of ginger and rosemary may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory mediators due to their high antioxidant activity. However, these effects were influenced by the type of delivery vehicle. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
JUSTO, OSELYS RODRIGUEZ; SIMIONI, PATRICIA UCELLI; GABRIEL, DIRCE LIMA; DA SILVA CUNHA TAMASHIRO, WIRLA MARIA; VIEIRA ROSA, PAULO DE TARSO; MORAES, ANGELA MARIA. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of crude ginger and rosemary extracts obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction on macrophage and tumor cell line: the influence of vehicle type. BMC COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE, v. 15, OCT 29 2015. Web of Science Citations: 11.

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