Introduction: Changes in metabolism (dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) and body composition (lipoatrophy and lipohipertrofia) were observed after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for treatment of HIV-infected subjects, known as lipodystrophy syndrome (LS). The oxidative stress was exacerbated in HIV-infected subjects since the beginning of aids but after HAART the situation seems to get worst. In addition to oxidative stress, it seems that energy expenditure is altered and the oxidation of substrate (fasting and post-prandial state) occurs in a different way than what is observed in healthy population. The oxidative stress, oxidation of substrate and lipodystrophy may have associations with each other. Insulin resistance correlates with oxidative stress and substrate oxidation alteration in healthy subjects. Objective: To compare oxidative stress during a fast state and oxidation of substrates in fasting and after giving diet between HIV-infected men undergoing HAART with LS (HIV+LIPO+); HIV-infected men undergoing HAART without LS (HIV+LIPO-) and healthy group (control). Correlations between oxidative stress, oxidation of substrates and lipodystrophy will be considered as specific objectives. Methods: Cross-sectional study assessing oxidative stress by laboratory analysis and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry in fasting and after 30 minutes of ingestion of standardized diet (30% lipids, 55% carbohydrate and 15% protein) in three groups: 20 HIV+LIPO+, 20 HIV+LIPO- and 20 Control. The oxidation of substrates will be obtained by the value of respiratory quotient and specific formulas for carbohydrate, protein and lipid. To do these formulas is essential to collect 24 hours urine to obtain the value of nitrogen.
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