Interactions between polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene and habitual intake of fat, carbohydrates and fibers and its influence on the cardiometabolic profile of young adults according to birth size.
Introduction: Both the quantity and the quality of fat, carbohydrates and fibers ingested can influence de development of insulin resistance (IR). Adiponectin regulates insulin action and adiponectinemia seems to be influenced by the habitual diet pattern, especially by the quantity and the quality of fat and carbohydrates intake. Subjects born in both extremes of birth size for gestational age (small: SGA and large: LGA) present hipoadiponectinemia and higher cardiometabolic risk than those born adequate (AGA). Polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) can modulate adiponectinemia and influence prenatal growth. Aim: To verify whether the habitual intake of fat, carbohydrates and fibers interact with polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene and influence the cardiometabolic profile of young and health adults considering their birth size. Subjects and Methods: case-control study nested within a cohort of 2063 subjects. Evaluated: subjects born SGA (n=198), LGA (n=116) and AGA (n=392). At birth, at 8-10 and at 23-25 years of age anthropometry measures were taken. Additionally, at 23-25 years, metabolic markers (blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and total adiponectinemia) were previously evaluated. The interaction between macronutrient intake (evaluated from a validated habitual diet intake questioner), adiponectin isoforms concentration at 23-25 years of age and the genotypes of the -11391G>A and -11377C>G polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene (allelic discrimination, RT-PCR) will be investigated. In addition, in a sub-set of individuals (n@75), a oral glucose tolerance test will be performed in order to evaluate the interaction between the polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene, birth size, adiponectinemia and acute variations on glycemia and insulinemia. This subjects will be categorized according to their genotype of the -11391G>A polymorphism and birth size. Statistics: qui-square test or Fisher's exact test when suitable, Spearman correlation test, two-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression adjusted for possible confounders; P<0,05.
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