Jequitibá-rosa (Cariniana legalis Mart. O. Kuntze), the symbol tree of São Paulo state, is one of the largest trees of the Atlantic Forest. The species is endemic to Brazil and occur in low population density (less than one tree/ha). However, the Atlantic Forest was intensively fragmented in the last centuries, and today remains only between 11 to 16% of the original forest. Forest fragmentation isolate and to decrease the size of the population. Consequently, affects the gene flow among populations and can increase the selfing rate, correlated matings, intra-population spatial, genetic structure and the relatedness in descend generations. Due to this, studies of the gene flow by pollen and seeds, mating system and spatial genetic structure are very important to understand the impacts of forest fragmentation on populations and to design strategies for in situ and ex situ conservation of the species. Microsatellite markers are very suitable for these studies due their very high polymorphism, in terms of number of alleles. Within this contest, in this study, we will investigate the contemporary pollen and seed flow, mating system and spatial genetic structure of a small fragmented population of C. legalis, located in the Estação Ecológica de Ibicatú-SP, Brazil. For to do this, all adult trees and about 300 seedlings will be mapped, measured (diameter and height), sampled and genotyped for eight microsatellite loci. Six-hundred open-pollinated seeds from 12 seed-trees will also be sampled. This study will produce valuable information's for management of fragmented populations of the species, contributing for breeding, conservation and reforestation plans.
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