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Critical thinking on Mediterranean diet with emphasis on olive oil: comparisons between in loco interventions and developed in Brazil

Grant number: 14/08470-9
Support type:Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): September 01, 2014
Effective date (End): January 31, 2015
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Medicine - Medical Clinics
Principal researcher:Sandra Roberta Gouvea Ferreira Vivolo
Grantee:Milena Monfort Pires
Supervisor abroad: Jose López Miranda
Home Institution: Faculdade de Saúde Pública (FSP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Research place: Universidad de Córdoba (UCO), Spain  
Associated to the scholarship:12/05503-8 - Does the "mediterranization" of a Brazilian meal induce cardiometabolic benefits?, BP.DR

Abstract

Western dietary pattern and physical inactivity have contributed to elevate the incidence of adiposity-related non-communicable chronic diseases. This scenario leads to high cardiovascular mortality rates, prompting experts to take public health prevention measures. On the other hand, populations who consume Mediterranean diet have lower mortality particularly due to cardiovascular disease. Benefits of this diet - rich in unsaturated fats, fiber and polyphenols - have been attributed in part to effects of nutrients in inflammation that precedes metabolic and atherosclerotic diseases. The objectives of the training abroad are to discuss our research protocol involving a Mediterranean style breakfast looking at similarities with their interventions; to deep knowledge about benefits of specific components of Mediterranean diet; to improve our data analysis based on strategies used by the Spanish group; to conduct a comprehensive literature review about the beneficial effects of olive oil on novel cardiovascular circulating biomarkers; and to join an on-going study conducted in the Cordoba University. In our cross-over clinical trial, individuals are being assigned to interventions with a typical Brazilian breakfast and "mediterranized" one for 4 weeks each, separated by a 2-week washout. Before and after each intervention period, individuals are submitted to 4-hour fat load tests with isocaloric breakfasts, including fasting and hourly blood sample collections. Clinical, biochemical data and several novel biomarkers are being obtained. Expression of selected genes (atherosclerosis pathway) is being analyzed at fasting and after fat load using real-time PCR. For the systematic review, a MEDLINE search will be conducted to identify prospective studies that examined the association between olive oil and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Specific tasks involving their ongoing project (Nutrigenética de la respuesta lipídica e inflamatoria en pacientes con síndrome metabólico. Efecto comparativo de una dieta mediterránea rica en aceite de oliva frente a una dieta pobre en grasa: ESTUDIO CORDIOPREV) will be defined further. (AU)

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