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Spent coffee grounds oil extraction using ethanol: Kinetics extraction, equilibrium data and process intensification

Grant number: 17/10034-0
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): August 01, 2017
Effective date (End): February 29, 2020
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Food Science and Technology - Food Engineering
Cooperation agreement: Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES)
Principal researcher:Christianne Elisabete da Costa Rodrigues
Grantee:Tatiane Akemi Toda
Home Institution: Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Pirassununga , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:14/21252-0 - Equilibrium and production processes of biofuels and bioproducts, AP.TEM

Abstract

Coffee is one of the worldly most consumed products of agroindustry, being that for the viability of its consumption in the form of instantaneous powder, large amount of residues is generated from the extraction process of soluble solids contained in the grains using water as solvent, this residue named spent coffee grounds. This material is commonly burnt in the industry to generate energy, even though it has characteristics very interesting, such as the significant amount of lipids, around 20% of mass, which can indicate the possibility of more noble usage for this material. Besides that, in the last few years, there is an increasing concern with the health associated to the consumption of processed products with the usage of inputs known as safe. In this way, it worth mentioning that the oilseed processing industry uses a solvent for the extraction of vegetable oils, a mix of n-hexane isomers, which has high flammability and high polluting capacity, beyond being considered neurotoxic.In this context, based on this information it is proposed this project of PhD thesis, which is based on the following pillars: minimization of coffee processing industry residues with a possible production of inputs for food industry, spent coffee ground oil using a renewable and safe solvent for the extraction, the ethanol.In master's dissertation sponsored by FAPESP (2013/25142-2), it was expended the initial efforts to reuse the spent coffee ground coming from the processing of soluble coffee to extract oil using renewable solvents, ethanol and isopropanol, in different temperature conditions. This work, although it has pointed that the solvents ethanol and isopropanol has enabled high oil extraction yield, higher than 75% at temperatures over 80 °C in a one stage of contact, and that hydrated ethanol was only effective on extraction of chlorogenic acids at 60 °C, it has shown the necessity of refinement of the studies in terms of understanding the mechanisms of solid-liquid extraction.This way, this PhD thesis aims to study the kinetics of oil extraction using only ethanolic solvents, in addition of studies focused on the determination of partition coefficients of oil and carbohydrates, in extraction process conducted at atmosphere pressure.Adding to that, due to the unsatisfactory performance of hydrated ethanol in the oil extraction at atmosphere pressure, it is proposed the intensification of the process using extraction with pressurized liquid (PLE, pressurized liquid extraction) and the extraction assisted by ultrasound (UAE, ultrasound assisted extraction), aiming to obtain spent coffee ground oil enhanced with minor compounds such as chlorogenic acids. (AU)

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