The interactions between the rumen microbial populations can be changed by nutritional strategies adopted and it can affect the fermentation dynamics and consequently the beef cattle performance . The use of co-products in the diets of feedlot beef cattle has increased to reduce feed costs. A new co-product are the distillery grains from the corn based ethanol industry. The information about the changes of the fermentation and the ruminal microbial diversity of the high concentrate diets of Nellore cattle fed with wet corn distillers grains is less clear and the knowledge of this information is essential for the formulation of diets that modulate the ruminal fermentation and potentiate the animal performance. The objective of this study will be to evaluate the effects of inclusion of levels of wet corn distillers grains (WDG) on the proportions of ruminal microbial populations and the fermentation of Nellore cattle. Eight rumen cannulated Nellore cattle (BW= 329) will be used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The animals will be distributed in 4 treatments: T1: 0%; T2: 15%; T3: 30% and T4: 45% WDG in dry matter (DM). Experimental diets will be formulated with ground corn, soybean meal, mineral nucleus and tifton 85 hay. The experiment will be conducted in four 21-day periods with 14 days of adaptation to the experimental diet and the last 7 days used for the quantification of microbial populations using the real-time PCR technique and other fermentative parameters. The data will be analyzed by orthogonal contrasts by the PROC MIXED procedure of the statistical software SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC).
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