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Evaluation of essential oils activity against oral microorganisms and effect of mouthwash containing essential oil upon cariogenic microorganism biofilm

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Author(s):
Ingrid Pontes de Sousa
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Niege Araçari Jacometti Cardoso Furtado; Carolina Patricia Aires; Mateus Freire Leite
Advisor: Niege Araçari Jacometti Cardoso Furtado
Abstract

The use of mouthwashes are an important resource in maintaining oral health as it can overcome the limitations of traditional mechanical cleaning because of their greater access to bacterial biofilm. Due to their ease of use, palatability and freshness, mouthwashes are considered as products of easy adhesibility, being especially important in maintaining oral health of users with less dexterity or inability to perform a proper teeth brushing. Among the several active components which may compose mouthwashes are the constituents from essential oils such as menthol, eucalyptol and thymol. A major advantage of the use of essential oils in oral health products is the range of biological and organoleptic properties that can be confered to the formulations, once these oils can work as antimicrobials that inhibit the production of acids and volatile sulfides by oral bacteria, also as antioxidants, antiinflammatory and flavoring agents simultaneously. Thus, essential oil containing formulations can work for preventing and treating the most common oral diseases such as dental caries, plaque, tartar, gingivitis, periodontitis and halitosis. The initial goal of the present work was to conduct a comparative study of antimicrobial and anticariogenic activities of essential oils extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Illicium verum, Zingiber officinale, Eucalyptus globulus, Tithonia diversifolia and Aldama arenaria, by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and by the potentiometric measurement of the pH from bacterial suspensions treated with serial essential oils concentrations. Among the volatile compounds analyzed, the essential oil from A. arenaria inflorescences was considered the most promising, for being active against S. mutans (MIC = 15.6 ?g/ml and MBC = 62.5 ?g/ml) and S. mitis (MIC = 31.2 ?g/ml and MBC = 31.2 ?g/ml) and moderately active against L. casei (MIC = 125 ?g/mL and CBM = 250 ?g/ml) and S. salivarius (MIC = 250 ?g/ml and MBC = 250 ?g/ml). The concentration that inhibits 50% of organic acids production by S. mutans was determined as 26.5 ?g/mL. This essential oil was chemically characterized and evaluated about its safety for incorporation in oral hygiene products. The major identified constituents were the sesquiterpenes carotol (12.67%), falcarinol (6.71%) and spathulenol (5.48 %). The essential oil displayed no anti-proliferative effects against human gingival fibroblasts treated during 30 minutes with concentrations up to 250 ?g/mL. Thus, this concentration of essential oil was chosen to be conveyed in the microemulsion mouthwash. The microemulsion was characterized as a translucent and stable system, with 1.22 g/ml relative density, 2.28 cP viscosity, 24.96 nm droplet size, 1246.67 ?S/cm of conductivity and final pH 6.56. Although characterized as a physical-chemically stable system, through a chromatograph analysis it was found that the oil was not homogeneously dispersed in the system. Considering the inhomogeneity of the formulation and, in order to determine the real potential of the essential oil, it was decided to evaluate the isolated effect of the oil against S. mutans biofilm. The essential oil displayed no inhibitory activity on the growth and acid production of sessile microorganisms at concentrations equal to 250 and 1,000 ?g/mL. However, the significant activity against proliferation and organic acid production of planktonic S. mutans, which is considered one of the main initiators of dental caries process and biofilms,indicated good perspectives for its constituents application in mouthwashes formulations. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/01429-8 - Avaliation of essential oils activity against oral microorganisms and effect of mouthwash containing essential oil upon cariogenic microorganism biofilm
Grantee:Ingrid Pontes de Sousa
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master