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Strategies to improve sensitivity and selectivity of chromatographic separations in flow analysis systems

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Author(s):
Alex Domingues Batista
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Fabio Rodrigo Piovezani Rocha; Orlando Fatibello Filho; Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes Jardim; Jarbas José Rodrigues Rohwedder; Leonardo Sena Gomes Teixeira
Advisor: Fabio Rodrigo Piovezani Rocha
Abstract

The introduction of chromatographic separations expanded the applicability of flow systems. However, selectivity and sensitivity of the procedures are limited due the poor options of stationary phases available for low-pressure. Therefore, four procedures were developed aiming the improvement of these aspects. The first proposal exploited pioneered fused-core columns in a flow injection analysis system. The separation of methyl, ethyl and propel parabens was selected as an application. The chromatographic efficiency of four columns (C18, RP-amide, F5 and fenyl-hexyl) were crítically evaluated. Acetonitrile and a phosphoric acid solution at pH 2.5 were used as mobile phase at different proportions for each column. The RP-amide phase presented the best performance by separating the analytes in 8.0 min with resolution > 1.72, peak symmetry < 1.66, LOD between 0.12-0.39 mg L-1, linear response range up to 5.0 mg L-1 (r > 0.996) and coefficients of variation of peak heights < 3.5% (n=10). The procedure was applied to parabens determination in personal care products and the results agreed with the HPLC reference procedure at the 95% confidence level. A procedure coupling solid phase extraction (SPE) to a sequential injection chromatography (SIC) was proposed for preconcentration and separation of eight sulfonamides. The pentafluorophenylpropyl (F5) phase was selected after a critical comparison of the performance achieved by three fused-core columns and two monolithic columns. Acetonitrile and acetate buffer pH 5.0 were used as mobile phase. Enrichment factors up to 39.2 were achieved with a 500 ?L sample volume. The developed procedure showed analysis time < 10.5 min, resolutions > 1.83 with peak symmetry <= 1.52, LODs between 4.9 and 27 ?g L-1, linear response ranges from 30.0 to 1000.0 ?g L-1 (r > 0.997) and CV of peak heights < 2.9% (n=6). Micelar chromatography was for the first time exploited in SIC and the performance was demonstrated by determination of melamine in milk. Mobile phase was composed by a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution and propanol (92.5:7.5). The sample pretreatment procedure was on-line implemented by dilution of the sample with SDS. A linear response was observed within 2.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 of melamine with a LOD estimated at 0.6 mg L-1 and coefficients of variation at 2.9% (n=6). Results for different milk samples agreed with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography at the 95% confidence level. A procedure involved on-column preconcentration of parabens in a SIC system was based on the injection of relatively high volume of an aqueous sample in a reversed-phase column. After preconcentration, a suitable mobile phase was inserted to perform chromatographic separation (acetonitrile/phosphoric acid pH 2.5 (75:25, v/v)). A linear response was achieved from 0.25 to 1.00 ?g mL-1 (r > 0.999) and LOD estimated within 40 and 80 ng mL-1. Coefficients of variation for retention time and peak heights were below 2.1%. Enrichment factors within 30.0 and 34.8 were achieved. The proposed strategies are feasible for improving selectivity and sensitivity of chromatographic separations in flow analysis systems, besides having advantages compared to similar procedures in the literature (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/06437-6 - Flow analysis systems applied to the determination of emerging pollutants
Grantee:Alex Domingues Batista
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate