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Potentially toxic elements in sediments from Jundiaí River and Capivari River: toxicity criterions evaluation and control parameter

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Author(s):
Karine Baldo de Genova Campos
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/STB)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Jefferson Mortatti; Ricardo Perobelli Borba; Fabiano Tomazini da Conceição; Jose Roberto Ferreira; Celia Regina Montes
Advisor: Jefferson Mortatti
Abstract

The aim of the current work was to study the chemical speciation of the main potentially toxic elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni e Pb) present in fluvial sediments from the drainage basins in the Jundiaí and Capivarí Rivers (São Paulo State), from their headwaters until the river mouth, identifying the natural causes and anthropic occurrences using various toxicity criterions and control parameters. The purpose of total concentration of the elements, acquired from the alkaline fusion method, permitted to evaluate the toxicity criterions considering the values of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) as well as the enrichment factors (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) based on the natural regional chemical fund (FGNR). The bioavailability evaluation was analyzed for the potentially toxic elements, according to the selective sequel extraction as well as for the relation among volatilized sulfide after a cold attack with acid (AVS) and the simultaneous metal extraction (SEM). The organic matter origin present in the river sediments was identified through the comparison between the reference parameters in isotopic basis (?13C). In terms of toxicity of the studied elements, the use of global references (world averages) shows overestimated values to Cd and underestimated to Cu (JM) according to FGNR, showing the importance of ponderation of geogenic formation in the evaluation of anthropic contribution classes in river bottom sediments. It was possible to note the coherence among the criterions of toxicity used (EF e Igeo), highlighting in the basin of Jundiaí River, anthropic contribution of Cu and Zn, mainly in JM. In the basin of Capivari River, it was possible to verify the anthropic contribution Pb in CF. The results obtained using the AVS and SEM methods in the evaluation of bioavailability of the potentially toxic elements using the criterion (SEM - AVS) / Corg > 130, showed that there isn\'t bioavailability of the elements in the sediments of sampled river bottoms. On the other hand, using the sequel selective extraction, the results present bioavailability of Cu, Zn and Pb in most of the studied monitoring stations, the Cu linked to the organic matter fraction (S4), Zn and Pb linked to the iron oxide and manganese fraction (S3). In addition, the origin of organic matter in the fine sediments of suspension (FSS) in Jundiaí and Capivarí Rivers turned out to be associated to the erosive material (soil of basin) in the rainy periods and to the domestic effluents in the dry periods, and in the bottom sediments, the origin of the organic matter turned out to be related mainly to the domestic effluents (AU)