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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Macrophage Polarization: Implications on Metabolic Diseases and the Role of Exercise

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Author(s):
Sanches Silveira, Loreana ; Mello Antunes, Barbara de Moura ; Araujo Minari, Andre Luis ; Thomatieli dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner ; Rosa Neto, Jose Cesar ; Lira, Fabio Santos
Total Authors: 6
Document type: Journal article
Source: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN EUKARYOTIC GENE EXPRESSION; v. 26, n. 2, p. 115-132, 2016.
Web of Science Citations: 4
Abstract

Macrophages are cells of the innate immune response that trigger inflammation resolution. The phenotype of ``classically activated macrophages{''} (M1) has anti-tumoricidal and anti-bactericidal activities. On the other hand, ``alternatively activated macrophages{''} (M2) are involved in tissue remodeling and immunomodulatory functions. The change in the polarization of macrophages varies according to the diversity of cytokines present in the microenvironment or by the stimuli of an antigen. It involves such factors as interferon-regulatory factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). Switching the phenotype of macrophages can help attenuate the development of an inflammatory disease. Exercise can promote alterations in the number of innate immune cells and stimulates phagocytic function. Chronic exercise seems to inhibit macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue by attenuating the expression of F4/80 mRNA. Furthermore, exercise may also increase the expression of M2 markers and reduce TNF-alpha and TLR4 mRNA expression, which activates the inflammatory pathway of NF-kappa B. Chronic exercise reduces beta 2-adrenergic receptors in monocytes and macrophages by modulating TLR4 signaling as well as suppressing IL-12 production, a stimulator of interferon.. In this review, we discuss macrophage polarization in metabolic diseases and how exercise can modulate macrophage plasticity. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/09367-4 - Metabolic effects of doxorubicin on the muscle and adipose tissue: do exercise and metformin reduce the damage?
Grantee:José Cesar Rosa Neto
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 14/08003-1 - Involvement of the NF-kB and PPAR-gamma in inflammatory and metabolic response in monocytes of sedentary, physically active and trained individuals
Grantee:Barbara de Moura Mello Antunes
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 14/01246-6 - Evaluation of immune metabolic response in peritoneal macrophages from obese mice: role of physical exercise and PPAR-gamma
Grantee:Loreana Sanches Silveira
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 13/25310-2 - Evaluation of immune-metabolic blood cells in obese subjects: role of physical exercise and PPAR-gamma
Grantee:Fábio Santos de Lira
Support type: Regular Research Grants