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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Macadamia Oil Extraction With Alcoholic Solvents: Yield and Composition of Macadamia Oil and Production of Protein Concentrates From Defatted Meal

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Navarro, Sandra L. B. [1, 2] ; Rodrigues, Christianne E. C. [1]
Total Authors: 2
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Separat Engn Lab LES, Dept Food Engn, POB 23, BR-13635900 Pirassununga, SP - Brazil
[2] Natl Univ Engn UNI, Dept Agri Ind Engn, POB 5595, Esteli - Nicaragua
Total Affiliations: 2
Document type: Journal article
Web of Science Citations: 1

The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of ethanol and isopropanol in the extraction of macadamia oil and the production of protein concentrates from the defatted meal. Partially defatted macadamia cake is submitted to batch extractions in one stage of contact at 60, 75, and 90 degrees C, while the sequential extraction trials considering four stages are performed at 75 degrees C. Oil extraction yield is influenced by the solvent type, temperature, and pre-treatment of the material. Absolute isopropanol at 90 degrees C enables to extract 66% of the oil while in the sequential configuration, oil yield up to 96% is attained after four stages. The retention of the solution adhered to the fiber (liquid holdup, LH) is affected by the type of solvent and characteristics of the raw material, being obtained LH values higher than 2. The oil extraction conditions affect negatively on the nitrogen solubility index of the defatted meal. The solvents in absolute degree impact less on the solubility of the proteins, enabling the production of macadamia protein concentrates (protein content of 70%) with functional properties suitable for using in the food industry.Practical Applications: This study is useful to oilseed processors and researchers because it addresses the issue of using macadamia cake as raw material to oil extraction with alcoholic solvents, ethanol, and isopropanol, which are less flammable and toxic than hexane. In addition, it is evaluated the effect of process variables on the oil yield, liquid holdup, and characteristics of the extraction products (oil and defatted meal). The results of this work could help to develop macadamia oil extraction process safe for the workers of oil industry and consumers and, simultaneously, to enable the use of by-products (defatted meal) in the protein concentrates production. Macadamia oil extraction, from partially defatted macadamia cake, is carried out using ethanol and isopropanol (absolute and hydrated) as solvents. The products of macadamia oil extraction are characterized, thus the extracted oils show typical fatty acid composition and the defatted meal presented higher protein content than raw material. Therefore, from these defatted meals are produced macadamia protein concentrates, which show good functional properties to be used as food ingredients. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 17/20840-4 - Valorization of agroindustrial coproducts through obtaining vegetable oils and minority compounds by extraction with solvents
Grantee:Christianne Elisabete da Costa Rodrigues
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 14/09446-4 - Development of a process of vegetable oil extraction using alcoholic solvents: evaluation of oil composition and changes in the protein fraction
Grantee:Christianne Elisabete da Costa Rodrigues
Support type: Regular Research Grants
FAPESP's process: 14/21252-0 - Equilibrium and production processes of biofuels and bioproducts
Grantee:Antonio José de Almeida Meirelles
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants