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In vitro digestion as a tool of rational design in the development of enriched yogurt with vitamins D3 and B12 for senior consumers

Abstract

The world population has shown a significant increase in life expectancy, which can generate opportunities in a niche market: senior consumers (or consumers over 60 years old). The human body undergoes significant changes with age, which alter physiological functions, and which can lead to changes in the absorption of certain micronutrients (for example, vitamins D and B12). To supply the nutritional deficiencies of this specific public, one proposal is the development of food matrices that simultaneously vehiculate different micronutrients. In this context, this project has as its central idea the development of a dairy product - yogurt - developed according to in vitro digestion parameters specified for senior consumers, simultaneously carrying two vitamins (vitamin D3 and B12). Such vitamins will be coencapsulated in liposomes produced by ultrasonication, which will later be freeze-dried for incorporation into yogurt. Static in vitro digestion will be used according to a protocol developed by the INFOGEST group, but adapted to the gastrointestinal conditions of senior consumers, as the rational design tool for enriched yogurt. Lyophilized liposomes (uncoated and coated) will be incorporated into yogurt, which will be subjected to in vitro digestion to determine the bioaccessibility of encapsulated vitamins. It will be possible to assess whether the biopolymeric coating is efficient and / or necessary for the protection of encapsulated bioactive materials. The yogurts that present the best results in terms of protection of vitamins at the end of the gastric stage will be characterized physically-chemically, microbiologically and sensorially. Such emphasis in the gastric stage is because liposomes are not considered as encapsulating structures with gastroresistant characteristics. The yogurt with greater sensory acceptance and better physical-chemical and microbiological profile will then be submitted to complete in vitro digestion (with the oral, gastric and intestinal steps) to assess the bioaccessibility of the vitamins encapsulated in the liposomes. Three main challenges are identified in this proposal: (i) development of an ultrasonication process for the production of liposomes coencapsulating a hydrophobic bioactive (vitamin D3) and a hydrophilic one (vitamin B12); (iii) the development of liposomes covered with biopolymers to increase gastro-resistance; (iii) the use of in vitro digestion parameters specified for digestion in adults> 60 years for the development of yogurt enriched with vitamins coencapsulated in the liposomes. (AU)

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