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Yams and barbascos in the evaluation and selection process for increasing diversity in cultivation and production modes

Grant number: 21/00999-4
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: April 01, 2022 - March 31, 2024
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Botany - Applied Botany
Principal researcher:Luís Carlos Bernacci
Grantee:Luís Carlos Bernacci
Home Institution: Instituto Agronômico (IAC). Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA). Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento (São Paulo - Estado). Campinas , SP, Brazil
Assoc. researchers: Andrew Townsend Peterson ; Antonio Carlos Pries Devide ; Cássia Regina Limonta Carvalho ; Cláudia Mira Attanasio ; Cristina Maria de Castro ; Eliane Gomes Fabri ; Isabella Clerici de Maria ; Joaquim Adelino de Azevedo Filho ; José Carlos Feltran ; Juliana Rolim Salomé Teramoto ; Luciana Lasry Benchimol-Reis ; Marco António Teixeira Zullo ; Maria Teresa Vilela Nogueira Abdo ; Renato De Giovanni ; Rose Marry Araújo Gondim Tomaz ; Valdemir Antonio Peressin

Abstract

In this research project we will seek to explore all potentialities as well as the increase in the diversity of yams and barbascos (Dioscorea spp) from the Germplasm Collection of the Agronomic Institute - IAC, through morpho-agronomic, phytochemical analysis (starch, amylose and diosgenin) and genetic diversity analyzes, through microsatellites, between different species and accessions as a subsidy to selection for breeding and cultivation. Potential distribution models will be produced and tested in the BioGeo System (http://biogeo.inct.florabrasil.net/) from computerized records of herbaria of species occurring in the State of São Paulo, non-computerized records and bibliographic sources of data from occurrence (articles, dissertations and theses, SinBiota, etc.), as support for the collection, introduction, maintenance and evaluation of diverse accessions, native and exotic, cultivated and / or naturalized in the State, in view of the proven importance of production for food and industrial use of several species of the genus Dioscorea. The germplasm obtained through samples of propagating material (seeds and / or vegetative structures, especially tubers) during collection expeditions will be prepared, including multiplication in a greenhouse of 50-75 accessions. The collection information associated with the herbarium vouchers will feed back to the BioGeo System, enabling improvement in distribution models based on ecological niche. Preferably, in August-September / 2021, the accesses collected in agricultural areas will be cultivated, for evaluation as to development and for multiplication, in full sun. The native species, collected in fragments of remaining vegetation, will be cultivated in the understory of forested area (SAF - Agroforestry System - implemented), especially with a view to survival and ambiance, in Campinas. Simultaneously, the pre-selected materials (~ 26) from the Germplasm Collection, remaining over the years, from previous evaluations, will continue to be cultivated (traditional cultivation), for multiplication, evaluations and characterizations (morpho-agronomic, phytochemical, etc.). Different accessions of D. alata and at least one accession for each of the other species will be evaluated in two different levels of shading, under sombrite. Additionally, in the second year of planting (August-September / 2022), the 10 best materials will be evaluated, comparatively in terms of production, in four distinct edaphoclimatic conditions (Pindorama, Campinas, Monte Alegre do Sul and Pindamonhangaba) in SAF, within the range shading levels that are most suitable for cultivation. The organoleptic characteristics of materials in the pre-improvement process must be considered. The best recently collected materials, both from cultivated and native areas, must be evaluated (morpho-agronomic, phytochemical, etc.), in order to expand the diversity available. The soils of the cultivation areas will be monitored for chemical fertility, microbiological activity, clay flocculation and water retention. Cultivation will be carried out, in full sun, on windrows of 20-30 cm in height, every 1 m and the plants spaced 40 cm apart (2 x 2 m for the air yam and medicinal species). The planting at SAF will be in the alley cropping system, with pre-cultivation of "crotalária juncea" or "crotalária espectabilis", to prevent the attack by nematodes. There will be no tutoring exclusively for D. alata accesses. To enable two phases of planting (September-October / 2021-22) and three of harvest (June-August / 21-22, May / 23), it should start in June / 2021, ending in May / 2023. (AU)

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