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Profile evaluation of citotoxicity, mutagenicty and genotoxicity of the dyes Basic Red 51, Basic Yellow 57 and P-Phenylenodiamine used in hair dye on skin cells.

Grant number: 10/07116-6
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): April 01, 2011
Effective date (End): April 30, 2014
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Pharmacy - Toxicological Analysis
Principal Investigator:Danielle Palma de Oliveira
Grantee:Thalita Boldrin Zanoni
Host Institution: Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (FCFRP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Ribeirão Preto , SP, Brazil
Associated scholarship(s):12/05961-6 - In vitro studies of the potencial of oxidative stress and immunotoxic potencial of basic red 51 and basic yellow 57 in keratinocytes, BE.EP.DR


The natural dyes have been applied for the purpose of dyeing hair since ancient times. The discovery of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in the nineteenth century enabled the development of industries in the manufacture of synthetic dyes with the same purpose. Hair may be colored by three mechanisms: I-temporary with basic dyes such as Basic Blue 41, Basic Red 76, Basic Yellow 57, Basic Brown 17, among others; II-Semi-permanent: they are the nitroaromatic dye (direct red 23), known as direct dyes, III-Permanent: The chemical process is involved in oxidative permanent hair dyes, using compounds such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and para-toluenediamine (PTD). This project aims to determine the IC50 of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and the dyes Direct Red 23 and Basic Blue 41 in melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanomas (SKMel-9) and (SKMel-3) to further investigate the possible type of cell death and possible alterations in the cell cycle. Depending on the results presented, the dye will be applied artificial dermis and skin in an attempt to determine damages in a situation close to real. In addition, we will investigate the profile of mutagenicity of the dyes using the Salmonella assay and the Comet test using human keratinocytes.

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
ZANONI, THALITA B.; HUDARI, FELIPE; MUNNIA, ARMELLE; PELUSO, MARCO; GODSCHALK, ROGER W.; ZANONI, MARIA VALNICE B.; DEN HARTOG, GERTJAN J. M.; BAST, AALT; BARROS, SILVIA B. M.; MARIA-ENGLER, SILVYA S.; et al. The oxidation of p-phenylenediamine, an ingredient used for permanent hair dyeing purposes, leads to the formation of hydroxyl radicals: Oxidative stress and DNA damage in human immortalized keratinocytes. Toxicology Letters, v. 239, n. 3, p. 194-204, . (08/10449-7, 10/07116-6, 12/05961-6)
ZANONI, THALITA B.; TIAGO, MANOELA; FAIAO-FLORES, FERNANDA; DE MORAES BARROS, SILVIA B.; BAST, AALT; HAGEMAN, GEJA; DE OLIVEIRA, DANIELLE PALMA; MARIA-ENGLER, SILVYA S.. Basic Red 51, a permitted semi-permanent hair dye, is cytotoxic to human skin cells: Studies in monolayer and 3D skin model using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Toxicology Letters, v. 227, n. 2, p. 139-149, . (10/07116-6, 11/07441-7)
Academic Publications
(References retrieved automatically from State of São Paulo Research Institutions)
ZANONI, Thalita Boldrin. Profile evaluation of citotoxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the dyes Basic Red 51, Basic Yellow 57 and P-Phenylenodiamine used in hair dye on skin cells. 2014. Doctoral Thesis - Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC) Ribeirão Preto.

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