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Profile evaluation of citotoxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the dyes Basic Red 51, Basic Yellow 57 and P-Phenylenodiamine used in hair dye on skin cells

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Thalita Boldrin Zanoni
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Danielle Palma de Oliveira; Anderson Rodrigo Moraes de Oliveira; Catarina Satie Takahashi
Advisor: Danielle Palma de Oliveira; Hideko Yamanaka

The process involving hair dyes is one of the oldest methods of coloring. The use of synthetic hair dyes started in the nineteenth century, after the development of p-phenylenodiamine (PPD). The hair dyes are classified according to their mechanism of action. The permanent hair dyes are classified by oxidative mechanisms, while direct dyes color the hair fiber by non-oxidative mechanisms. Research regarding the potential damage of hair dyes to human health has been an enormous challenge for the scientific community. Particularly due to the large discrepancy of epidemiological studies involving in vitro methodologies. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of a compound representative from each of the class of hair dyes, a temporary dye (Basic Yellow 57 (BY57), a semi temporary (Basic Red 51 (BR51) and a permanent hair dyes p-phenylenodiamine (PPD) in human skin cells. The studied skin cell lines where, immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) primary fibroblasts, we also used melanoma SK-Mel-103. Subsequently, after characterization of the most toxic dye, we investigated specific mechanisms of cell death, changes in cell cycle and the ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by the evaluation of three-dimensional artificial skin. In addition, we assessed the ability of each dye in inducing oxidative stress in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) this is the primary route of exposure of hair dyes. Then, the most toxic compound was tested in human skin explants. Finally the mutagenic potential of the dyes BY57 and BR51 were evaluated. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 10/07116-6 - Profile evaluation of citotoxicity, mutagenicty and genotoxicity of the dyes Basic Red 51, basic yellow 57 and P-Phenylenodiamine used in hair dye on skin cells
Grantee:Thalita Boldrin Zanoni
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate