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Analysis of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants in Ilhabela-SP by coupling techniques Refrigerated Sorptive Extraction (RSE), Thermal desorption (TD) and GC/MS

Grant number: 11/16777-9
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): May 01, 2012
Effective date (End): July 31, 2013
Field of knowledge:Engineering - Sanitary Engineering - Environmental Sanitation
Principal researcher:Igor Renato Bertoni Olivares
Grantee:Ricardo dos Santos Camargo
Home Institution: Instituto de Química de São Carlos (IQSC). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Carlos , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The process of urbanization and use of natural areas and protected on the Litoral Norte de São Paulo has intensified in recent decades. For this reason, it is urgent not only to understand the dynamics of the natural environment, as well as its interaction with the occupation and adverse effects generated by human activities. In this sense the choice of the São Sebastião Island, the town of Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil, is justified not only by presenting a large area of preserved Atlantic Forest, but also by intense processes of urbanization, caused mainly by the increase in tourism that enable the evaluation the effect of the interaction between anthropogenic and natural dynamics of the island.One way to evaluate these interactions is through the identification and quantification of contaminants originating from the various uses of the coastal landscape of the island. Thus, pollutants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), and some degradation products of surfactants (alkyl phenols) have been quantified in various compartments as environmental surface water and groundwater, soil and sediments, in order to understand the extent of impacts generated by human actions like burning fossil fuels generates PAHs and BTEX and use of industrial detergents and household, releasing surfactants (alkylphenols) in surface waters. However, some of these compounds are naturally produced, especially by vegetation and may be used a ratio of compounds with anthropic sources versus natural sources, as an indicator of environmental contamination.One way of analyzing these types of contaminants is through the extraction technique Refrigerated Sorptive Extraction (RSE) which has been used to obtain a greater recovery in the extraction of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants (in order to reach lower limits of detection and quantification) This technique consists in a cooling sorptive phase whereas the analytes that are in the headspace are being absorbed by the phase at lower temperature by cooling with ice water, thereby shifting the distribution constant (Kd) and increasing recovery. The application of this technique is also recent improvements may be applied, for example, by exchange of the cooling medium for gas mixture and coupling with thermal desorption system (TD) followed by analysis by GC / MS.Thus, this research project aims to optimize and validate the methodology RSE/TD/GC/MS analysis of PAHs, BTEX and alkylphenols in an environmental matrix (water stream of Córrego das Tocas river) in Ilhabela town, Sao Paulo. The obtained results allow to infer about the magnitude of human disturbance on the island.

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