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Fungi and modified mycotoxins in grapes and wines: modeling the variability of formation, stability during the processing and health effects

Grant number: 16/21041-5
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): July 01, 2017
Effective date (End): February 29, 2020
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Microbiology - Applied Microbiology
Cooperation agreement: Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES)
Principal Investigator:Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana
Grantee:Luisa Freire
Home Institution: Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos (FEA). Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Campinas , SP, Brazil


Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the main mycotoxin contaminating grapes and its products, being responsible for several harmful effects on human and animal health. In tropical regions, Aspergillus species such as A.carbonarius and A. niger are the major responsible for the synthesis of this mycotoxin. The presence of OTA in wines is due to contamination of grapes by toxigenic fungi that grow at pre-harvest, harvest or during the preceding stages of winemaking. In addition to OTA, some modified forms of these mycotoxins may occur as a result of reactions taken place during processing, due to microbial transformation or the metabolism of plants. These modified forms of mycotoxins often co-occur with their parent mycotoxin. Data and studies related to the production of OTA and modified mycotoxins by species commonly found in grapes have not been found in the literature. Moreover, no information regarding the influence of maturation stages and the variety of grapes in the formation of modified mycotoxins have been found. In addition, limitations regarding the OTA degradation and the formation of modified mycotoxins during winemaking have not been described in the literature. Therefore, it becomes patent the importance to determine and quantify the variability associated with the production of mycotoxins and their modified forms for the refinement of risk assessment models and for the design of proper risk management strategies. To the best of author's knowledge, there are no studies about quantification and assessment of variability of the formation of modified mycotoxins during the wine production steps. Given the above, the current project is proposed that, aims to: i) determine the variability of fungal growth and production of OTA and its modified forms by strains of Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius; ii) determine the variability of formation and degradation of OTA and its modified forms during winemaking; iii) assess the formation of modified mycotoxins by the rats metabolism and their effects on health of these animals. The results of this project have the potential to provide significant references for improvements in the regulations dealing with the occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in foods and finally will serve to protect public health. (AU)

Scientific publications (6)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
FREIRE, LUISA; BRAGA, PATRICIA A. C.; FURTADO, MARIANNA M.; DELAFIORI, JEANY; DIAS-AUDIBERT, FLAVIA L.; PEREIRA, GIULIANO E.; REYES, FELIX G.; CATHARINO, RODRIGO R.; SANT'ANA, ANDERSON S. From grape to wine: Fate of ochratoxin A during red, rose, and white winemaking process and the presence of ochratoxin derivatives in the final products. FOOD CONTROL, v. 113, JUL 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.
FREIRE, LUISA; FURTADO, MARIANNA M.; GUERREIRO, TATIANE M.; DA GRACA, JULIANA S.; DA SILVA, BEATRIZ S.; OLIVEIRA, DIOGO N.; CATHARINO, RODRIGO R.; SANT'ANA, ANDERSON S. The presence of ochratoxin A does not influence Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth kinetics but leads to the formation of modified ochratoxins. Food and Chemical Toxicology, v. 133, NOV 2019. Web of Science Citations: 1.
PIA, ARTHUR K. R.; PEREIRA, ANA P. M.; COSTA, RAMON A.; ALVARENGA, VERONICA O.; FREIRE, LUISA; CARLIN, FREDERIC; SANT'ANA, ANDERSON S. The fate of Bacillus cereus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus during alkalization of cocoa as affected by alkali concentration and use of pre-roasted nibs. FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, v. 82, p. 99-106, SEP 2019. Web of Science Citations: 2.
FREIRE, LUISA; GUERREIRO, TATIANE M.; PIA, ARTHUR K. R.; LIMA, ESTELA O.; OLIVEIRA, DIOGO N.; MELO, CARLOS F. O. R.; CATHARINO, RODRIGO R.; SANT'ANA, ANDERSON S. A quantitative study on growth variability and production of ochratoxin A and its derivatives by A. carbonarius and A. niger in grape-based medium. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, v. 8, OCT 1 2018. Web of Science Citations: 3.
FREIRE, LUISA; GUERREIRO, TATIANE M.; CARAMES, ELEM T. S.; LOPES, LETICIA S.; ORLANDO, EDUARDO A.; PEREIRA, GIULIANO E.; LIMA PALLONE, JULIANA A.; CATHARINO, RODRIGO R.; SANT'ANA, ANDERSON S. Influence of Maturation Stages in Different Varieties of Wine Grapes (Vitis vinifera) on the Production of Ochratoxin A and Its Modified Forms by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 66, n. 33, p. 8824-8831, AUG 22 2018. Web of Science Citations: 3.
CAMPAGNOLLO, FERNANDA B.; MARGALHO, LARISSA P.; KAMIMURA, BRUNA A.; FELICIANO, MARCELO D.; FREIRE, LUISA; LOPES, LETICIA S.; ALVARENGA, VERONICA O.; CADAVEZ, VASCO A. P.; GONZALES-BARRON, URSULA; SCHAFFNER, DONALD W.; SANT'ANA, ANDERSON S. Selection of indigenous lactic acid bacteria presenting anti-listerial activity, and their role in reducing the maturation period and assuring the safety of traditional Brazilian cheeses. FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, v. 73, p. 288-297, AUG 2018. Web of Science Citations: 9.

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