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Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect of phenolic acids alone, in combination and incorporated in chitosan hydrogels for endodontic application

Grant number: 19/01949-0
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): June 01, 2019
Effective date (End): April 30, 2022
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Dentistry - Pediatric Dentistry
Principal researcher:Cristiane Duque
Grantee:Vanessa Rodrigues dos Santos
Home Institution: Faculdade de Odontologia (FOA). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Araçatuba. Araçatuba , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Although conventional endodontic treatment significantly reduces the microbiota inside the root canals, the permanence of microorganisms due to the anatomical complexity of the root canal system and their resistance to chemical-mechanical treatment can lead to persistent or secondary infections. In addition, endotoxins remaining in the root canals may lead to periapical tissue injuries due to oxidative stress and exacerbated production of proinflammatory cytokines. All these effects are complicated in the case of immature permanent teeth, because the wide opening of the apical foramen, which promotes even more contact of these microorganisms and their products with the remaining vital tissue responsible for the complete formation of the root. Phenolic acids, secondary metabolites produced by plants have received special attention from researchers because of their potential for medical application. Within this group, cinnamic acids and their derivatives have been distinguished by their broad antimicrobial and antifungal spectrum. This study proposes to evaluate: 1) the antimicrobial/antibiofilm and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic acids derived from cinnamic acid, alone or in combination; and 2) to synthesize and characterize physico-chemically chitosan hydrogels containing phenolic acids, as well as to test its effect on multispecies biofilm and anti-inflammatory properties. The antimicrobial activity of the following phenolic acids: cinnamic acid and its derivatives coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and synapic acid will be determined by means of MIC, CBM and CIF on microorganisms of endodontic interest. Then, phenolic acids with antimicrobial activity, alone or in combination will be selected to evaluate the effect on microbial biofilm in confocal microscopy. In macrophage culture, these compounds will be screened for cell viability and subjected to nitric oxide and qPCR inhibition assays for determination of iNOS, COX-2 and IL-1² expression levels. Phenolic acids or combinations with better results will be incorporated in thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels and evaluated the effect on multispecies biofilm, cytotoxicity and NO production. Phenolic acids could be promising agents for endodontic application, such as dressings between sessions, to promote the disinfection of root canals and contain the inflammation, thus permitting periapical tissue repair. (AU)