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Quantitative technique validation for sex determination in a Portuguese sample

Grant number: 19/18009-0
Support type:Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): January 02, 2020
Effective date (End): February 01, 2020
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Dentistry
Principal Investigator:Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic
Grantee:Joyce Campos de Miranda
Supervisor abroad: Eugenia Maria Guedes Pinto Antunes da Cunha
Home Institution: Faculdade de Odontologia (FO). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Local de pesquisa : Universidade de Coimbra (UC), Portugal  
Associated to the scholarship:19/00625-7 - Use of a method for sex estimation using qualitative and quantitative analysis of Brazilian skulls, BP.IC

Abstract

State of artSexual dimorphism analysis has been extensively explored in Forensic Anthropology and Forensic Dentistry; its importance is highlighted when general individual characteristics aid in identification processes.ObjectiveTo verify the accuracy o a qualitative technique in a Brazilian skulls sample (Fapesp proc. 2019/00625-7) and a quantitative technique in a Portuguese skulls sample to verify sexual dimorphism. MaterialThe Brazilian sample will include 120 adult skulls from the Institute of Investigation in Forensic Sciences (Instituto de Estudo e Pesquisa em Ciências Forenses- IEPCF). The Portuguese sample will include 120 adult skulls from Laboratory of Forensic Anthropology, University of Coimbra, Portugal. Both samples are documented, including indivudal characteristics from the obituaries.MethodsWalker (2008) technique will be used in the Brazilian sample and the measurements described in the interactive table (described by Lopez-Capp in 2017) will be used in the Portuguese sample. Walker's (2008) method consists in the visual analysis of five anatomical features: nucal crest, mastoid process, supra-orbital margin, glabela and mental eminence. Each structure must be classified form 1 to 5, being 1 of low proeminence and 5, highly proeminent.In the Portuguese skulls nine measurements will be performed in the craniums and eight in the mandibles, as follows: Cranial measurements:- Maximum Cranial Length (GOL)-- Linear distance from glabella (g) to opisthocranion(op) in the mid-sagittal plane.- Basion-Bregma Height (BBH)-- Linear distance from basion (ba) to bregma (b).- Cranial Base Length (BNL)-- Linear distance from basion (ba) to nasion (n).- Nasal Height (NLH)-- Linear disatnce from nasion (n) to nasospinale (ns).- Bizygomatica Breadth (ZYB)-- Linear distance between right and left zygion (zy). - Asterion-Porion Length, right (APLd)-- Linear distance from asterion (ast) to porion (po).- Porion-Mastoidale Length, left (PMLe)-- Linear distance from porion (po) to mastoideale (ms).- Mastoid Length, right and left (MDHd e MDHe)-- Vertical projection of the mastoid process below and perpendicular to the Frankfurt planeMandibular measurements:- Body height at mental foramen, left (HMBe)-- Distance from the alveolar process to the inferior border of the mandible at the level of the mental foramen.- Bicoronoid breadth (BCB)- - Distance between the highest points of the mandibular coronoid processes.- Bicondylar breadth (CDB)-- Linear distance between right and left condylion laterale (cdl).- Maximum ramus height, right (d) and left (e) (MRHd e MRHe)-- The distance from gonion (go) to the highest point on the mandibular condyle.- Bigonial breadth (BGB)- - Linear distance between right and left gonion (go).- Mandibular length (Projection) (MLP)-- Distance between pogonion (pg) and the perpendicular line that tangent the posterior part of the condylar processes.- Mandibular notch depth (MNDd)-- Distance between the inferior point of the mandibular notch and the midpoint of a straight line extending from the superior point of the condylar process and the superior point of the coronoid process.Expected resultsThe results will be compared with the documents form in the obituaries and the correct results will be measured using descriptive analysis, discriminant analysis and ROC curve; STATA 13.0 will be used to run the results. If it is verified that the methods are not applicable to the samples, we are going to adapt the initial techniques, in order to make them fit to each countries' realities.