Increasing and maintaining muscle mass has been of great interest to many populations, which can be achieved through strength training and potentiated through dietary strategies such as increased/adequate protein intake and supplement intake. Phosphatidic Acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis due to stimulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. MTOR is a signaling kinase responsible for triggering a cascade of molecular events that promote protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, especially increasing protein translation. There is evidence that phosphatidic acid supplementation is capable of enhancing strength and muscle mass gains in response to strength training, although the literature is still incipient and quite controversial. The present study will adopt a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled design to evaluate the efficacy of chronic phosphatidic acid supplementation in maximal dynamic muscle strength gain, body composition and muscle cross-sectional area. in trained adult subjects undergoing a strength training program. About 45 men will be randomly allocated to one of three treatments at a ratio of 1:1:1: PA 750mg·d-1, PA 350 mg·d-1, or placebo (cornstarch, 750 mg·d-1), for 12 weeks. All participants will undergo a 12-week strength training program, 3 times a week, totaling 36 sessions, which will begin with the start of supplementation. Before and after treatments, participants will be evaluated for the following parameters: body composition by hydrostatic weighing, maximal supine upper dynamic force (1RM) and lower limbs (1RM leg-press), upper and lower limb dynamic strength resistance, vastus lateralis muscle cross-sectional area via ultrasound. The following blood parameters will also be evaluated: CK and LDH (before and 48h after the first and last training session), free testosterone, IGF-1, GH and cortisol. Data will be analyzed using mixed models (proc mixed SAS v.9.3). The significance level adopted will be 5%.
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