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Byproducts recovery from food processing: extraction of phytochemical compounds, encapsulation and application in biodegradable films / coatings

Abstract

The aim of this study are (i) to produce extracts of active compounds from byproducts obtained after the processing of acerola puree (Malpighia emarginata) and carrot juice (Daucus carota) using sonication and ethanolic or chitosan solution; (ii) to encapsulate these compounds in chitosan-recovered liposomes by the ionic gelation system using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP-chitosomes); (iii) to obtain nanofibers from the extraction residue, (iv) to incorporate the particles in biodegradable film/coating and (v) to apply as coating of fruits/vegetables. Initially, an experimental design 22 will be carried out in order to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, depending on the byproduct. Byproduct concentration and power output/time of sonication as independent variables. The quantification of phenolic compounds will be performed by spectrophotometry and their identification, at the optimized condition, will be evaluated by Ultra-Efficient Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). The quantification of carotenoids will be performed with the aid of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). TPP-chitosomes will be evaluated according to particle size by dinamic light scattering (DLS) analysis and zeta potential, ATR/FTIR (Attenuated Infrared Spectroscopy/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), morphology by Confocal Microscopy or Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and in vtiro digestibility. Coatings/ films will be characterized in relation to their mechanical and functional properties. The release of phytochemical will also be evaluated. These products will be applied to minimally processed food by spraying technique, being analyzed and compared according to loss of mass, firmness, pH, color, and microbiological analysis. (AU)

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