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Lipid profile and transcriptome of the brain of swine feeded with different oil sources

Grant number: 20/10042-6
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): August 01, 2020
Effective date (End): July 31, 2022
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Animal Husbandry - Genetics and Improvement of Domestic Animals
Principal researcher:Aline Silva Mello Cesar
Grantee:Bruna Pereira Martins da Silva
Home Institution: Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Piracicaba , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:17/25180-2 - Effect of dietary oleic acid on fatty acid composition and inflammatory response profile in different tissues of pigs, AP.JP

Abstract

Lipids are a class of molecules present in all types of cells, contributing to cell structure, energy storage and various biological functions, from transcriptional regulation to physiological processes. Previous studies have shown that oleic acid (AO), as well as other fatty acids, such as linoleic acid (AL), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are associated with the regulation of gene transcription in tissues such as muscle, brain, liver, adipose, monocytes and mononuclear blood cells. In addition, fatty acids play an important role in cognitive responses, cytokine responses, inflammatory reactions and specific and nonspecific immune responses in humans and animals.Due to the importance of swine both in the economic question and in the question of research in the health field (animal model for scientific studies in humans), the species (Sus scrofa) was chosen for the study. Factors such as diet and metabolic interactions directly or indirectly influence the expression of some specific genes. Among the benefits of using fatty acids, we highlight the use to increase energy density in pig diets; improve overall feed efficiency; and can be used as adjuvants in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids and molecular signaling and their use can reduce the cost of production by increasing the financial return. Thus, it is extremely important to carry out research aimed at including different sources of fatty acids in the diet.To carry out the study in question, the breeding of the animals was carried out in collaboration with the DB Genética company, in which the stages of the experiment included: artificial insemination of the matrices, management of the animals, nutritional program and collection of performance data (live weight and consumption), as well as biological materials (blood, hair and feces). The experimental diets used were: (1) soy (SOJ): basal diet with addition of 3% degummed soy oil and (2) canola (CAN): basal diet with addition of 3% canola oil. The animals (125 kg of average live weight) were slaughtered after 12 h of food restriction and the brain samples were collected within a maximum of 30 minutes after bleeding, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently stored at -80 ° C in ultra freezer. These samples will be used for extraction of total mRNA.The hypothesis of this work is that the inclusion of these oils in the swine diet, in the growth and termination phase, may alter the lipid profile and the transcriptomic profile of the brain, affecting various biological processes and possibly phenotypic characteristics of the animals, in addition to their correlation with the disease incidence. This knowledge can be applied both in the area of animal production (genetic improvement, nutrition and ambience) and in the area of animal health and pork consumers.Another aspect of great potential of this project is the identification of candidate causal molecular markers, functional molecular markers, the consolidation of the importance of fatty acids as immunonutrients, as well as the identification of candidate metabolic pathways which can be the focus of drug action. (AU)

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