The loss of skin and appendages, is a non-healing wounds or from complications surgical, excision of complicated hernias, cancer or severe burns, has created a great expectation for new technologies in the field of tissue engineering. The advances in this area have led to the development of several products (synthetic and biological) for use in transplants, with the goal of improving patient's quality of life through the restoration and maintenance of tissues and the tissues function and organs transplanted. Designated as skin substitutes, equivalents of the epidermis and dermis have been investigated and used clinically for several years. However, acellular biological materials that are immunologically compatible and suited to the repair of skin, either as a fill (dermis) or support and protection (epidermis), must be carefully implemented. Thus, our goal will be to standardize a technique economically viable decellularization skin, develop acellular (scaffolds) and characterize them in terms of biochemical, biomechanical and structural. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the scaffolds we will do a first experiment with the subcutaneous implantation of scaffolds in rats. In another experiment, we will perform the transplantation of scaffolds, with or without treatment with the protein annexin A1 (AnxA1) and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin. Also evaluate the following aspects: the biocompatibility of implants / transplants to the host tissue (healing process, integration of the implant, host cell density in implant, presence of mast cells and mineralization of subcutaneous implantation); AnxA1 protein expression in leukocytes located in heterografts; the process of apoptosis and neovascularization respectively by the expressions of AnxA5 and Von Willebrand factor, the regenerative potential of the scaffolds and immunogenic in different experimental conditions by means of phenotypic macrophage M1/M2, the gene expression of growth factors FGF and TGF; the amount of circulating leukocytes in the peripheral blood, and the dosage of pro-inflammatory cytokines by biochemical analyzes. The AnxA1 will be evaluated as a potential therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and improve healing and regenerative process of the heterograft, possibly with fewer side effects compared to traditional therapy.
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