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Effect of processing on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium and lead on cocoa beans and derived products

Grant number: 17/21451-1
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: May 01, 2018 - April 30, 2020
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Food Science and Technology - Food Science
Principal Investigator:Silvia Amelia Verdiani Tfouni
Grantee:Silvia Amelia Verdiani Tfouni
Home Institution: Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL). Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA). Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento (São Paulo - Estado). Campinas , SP, Brazil
Assoc. researchers:Marcelo Antonio Morgano ; Maria Isabel Berto ; Priscilla Efraim ; Regina Prado Zanes Furlani
Associated scholarship(s):18/23045-3 - Effect of processing in the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cocoa beans and derived products, BP.TT
18/11623-2 - Levels of cadmium and lead in cocoa beans and derived products, BP.TT

Abstract

Brazil is considered one of the world's major cocoa producer. In 2016, the country produced 215 thousand tons of cocoa. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds formed during incomplete combustion of organic matter and some of them are considered carcinogenic and genotoxic. The presence of PAHs in cocoa may be due to the use of smoke during the drying of the beans or to the high temperatures employed during roasting. The main sources of lead and cadmium contamination are related to their presence in the environment, with strong relation to the region where cocoa is produced. In order to protect human health and guarantee the safety of the products available in the market, the development of a study that screens the levels of PAHs formed in different cocoa processing conditions and evaluates the occurrence of Cd e Pb in Brazilian products is extremely important. Therefore, the objective of the present project is to i) understand the roasting process of cocoa beans (dried with and without smoke) through the study of PAHs formation kinetics and evaluate their formation and transference to cocoa derived products, ii) study the presence of inorganic contaminants Cd and Pb in the derived products in order to study their distribution, and iii) evaluate the occurrence of Cd and Pb in cocoa beans from the main Brazilian producing regions. Therefore, analytical methods will be optimized using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) and inducted coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). (AU)